Luke drawing the Virgin". The Madonna of humility by Domenico di Bartolo, is considered one of the most innovative devotional images from the early Renaissance. In turn, a modestly scaled image of the Madonna as a half-length figure holding her son in a memorably intimate depiction, is to be found in the National Gallery of London. There was a great expansion of the cult of Mary after the Council of Ephesus inwhen her status as Theotokos "God-bearer" was confirmed; this had been a subject of some controversy until then, though mainly for reasons to do with arguments over the nature of Christ. The Museum makes its collection database available to be used by scholars around the world.
It is particularly close in the arrangement of the figures to a glazed terracotta relief by Luca della Robbia:
Its expense registers in the use of thin sheets of real gold leaf in all parts of the panel that are not covered with paint, a visual analogue not only to the costly sheaths that medieval goldsmiths used to decorate altars, but also a means of surrounding the image of the Madonna with illumination from oil lamps and candles. In an Eastern Orthodox context, such images are typically known as Theotokos. The panel became widely influential with near copies by the Master of the Legend of Saint Ursula and Hugo van der Goes. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Madonna di Lucca. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Message You can provide a custom message that will preface the content in the email. During the 13th century, especially, [ citation needed ] with the increasing influence of chivalry and aristocratic culture on poetry, song and the visual arts, the Madonna is represented as the queen of Heaven, often enthroned.