Attentional bias predicts outcome in smoking cessation. An affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Preconscious effects of temporary goals on attention. Being thirsty and perceptually ready. One important aspect of human drug use is that the first experiences with drugs are rarely accidental, as they are in animals. In addition to overcoming such initial negative experiences with substances, humans also need to overcome potentially negative health and legal consequences that are usually absent in animals. As such, the same principles that apply to the regulation of motivated action in general should be relevant to the development and maintenance of addiction.
In both cases, substance use appears to be substantially reduced.
Selective processing of smoking-related cues in current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers on the modified Stroop task. Multiple paths to partial truths: Perceiving is for pursuing. An opponent-process theory of acquired motivation: As discussed in the previous section, it has been suggested that anything processed during repeated drug-use episodes e. However, recent advances in the study of motivation and self-regulation have begun to uncover these processes.